There are several basic types of biometrics that are used by access control systems. The first type is called a biometric identifier, this is a device or application that matches an individual with a known fingerprint or face print. This is usually a one-time process. Next is a biometric index, this matches an individual with a known fingerprint or faces print. Finally, the biometric verification system, which verifies fingerprints and other types of biometrics against a database of individuals.
Most businesses and government applications rely on biometrics as a way to identify individuals. There are two main ways to perform a biometric authentication process. First is where a person carries their key and enters a secured area. The second is where a person uses a key that has been preloaded with information into a keypad and then enters the area with the printed key. These biometric methods of authentication have proven to be very reliable and are often referred to as “two-finger” methods of biometrics because only the tips of the fingers are used in order to unlock or lock a door or access control panel.
In order to determine if a person’s fingerprint is authentic, a biometric verification system combines information from several different biometric sources in order to verify the individual. By combining thumbprint, hand geometry, voice patterns, and other factors, a biometric verification system can quickly and accurately match a person’s fingerprint with various other factors. This allows for quick identification of individuals in a large crowd or during crowded public places such as at the airport or bus terminal.
In addition to verifying fingerprints and other biometrics with sound digital fingerprints and/or face prints, these types of systems can also store other types of biometrics and use them in conjunction with one another. For instance, some systems may allow the user to register with a social network like Facebook and automatically acquire a password. The user would then be asked to log into the social networking site using their password. Facebook has been experimenting with this method but is still working on the software and hardware needed to implement this service.
Other types of biometric data capture include iris scans. Iris scans are usually performed for identification purposes, but they may also be required for legal reasons. The iris in the eye does not actually print out a picture of the retina, it is electronically scanned by a computer and stored in a database. iris scans are often required when medical professionals require a copy of a patient’s iris for medical records or to confirm the accuracy of a driver’s license or state ID. These types of biometric scans are becoming more commonplace in hospitals.
Another type of biometric verification system commonly used by employers is fingerprint card technology. Employers often require their employees to swipe their fingerprint cards through an automated machine in order to gain access to company property. A typical fingerprint card will have multiple areas where users can swipe their finger in order to gain access to secured areas. Fingerprint cards are most commonly used by store security or ATM machines but may also be used by employees in a human resources department.
Computer generated voice recognition is another type of biometric verification system that has recently been developed. This technology takes voice conversations and stores them in a repository. If a voice signal is desired, then the user can specify that they want to speak to the device that is associated with the voice. The voice recognition software will then generate a voice print, which the user can then authenticate themselves to. This biometric verification system has the advantage that it is completely foolproof.
Biometric verification systems are required in some industries more than others. In the financial and banking industry, biometric verification systems are mandatory for all employees that interact with client’s funds. It is also required for employees that work in customer service centers or technical support. In addition to being required by law, biometric verification systems are highly efficient and effective. There is no more need for manual data entry as well as a high degree of automation. In fact, many biometric verification systems are able to process the same amount of data in less time, thereby saving money and reducing errors.
Types of Biometrics
1. DNA Matching
One of the most interesting types of Biometrics is DNA matching. DNA Matching identifies a certain individual by analyzing genetic material (Y or DNA) from samples obtained from one or more individuals. The process is a lot more complex compared to typing. DNA Matching is done by compiling the set of genetic material (known as the profiles) that are characteristic of only one person. These profiles are known as DNA profiles and are used for a number of reasons by crime labs and forensic experts for evidence collection and analysis.
DNA Matching uses a complex DNA matching algorithm that requires a great deal of information. A DNA Matching test is usually performed by a crime lab and cannot be undertaken by a generic DNA testing company. DNA Matching tests identify a DNA match between a subject and a set of physical characteristics. There are various types of DNA match types, all of which are used for different purposes.
Type I DNA Matching
The type I DNA is most commonly associated with collecting DNA samples from saliva samples taken from an individual. This type of DNA matches people through their genetic material (genetic code). This DNA is known as Single DNA. This means that a specific person can be tested for this type of DNA at a specific time. The results from a Single DNA test depend on whether the sample is from a saliva sample or a blood sample. If the DNA sample from the saliva sample is found to be consistent with that of the person tested then the results are positive and conclusive.
Type II DNA Matching
The next type of DNA Matching is Type II DNA Matching. Unlike the type, I DNA test, Type II DNA Matching identifies people by their genetic material found in their Y DNA. It is the most complicated type of DNA match, as it requires the extraction of DNA from the genetic material found in a person’s DNA strands.
Type III DNA Matching
Type III DNA Matching identifies people by their mitochondrial DNA. This type of DNA is passed down only from the mother to her children. Unlike X DNA or Single DNA that can be used to determine a person’s identity, the DNA contained in mitochondria passed down from the mother must be extracted from the maternal DNA. Mitochondrial DNA can be matched using a PCR technology based on primers that are specific to the exact sequence of bases within the DNA regions of interest. Because this type of DNA is less common than other types, it is not as successful in detecting familial relationships and is therefore not often used in DNA testing.
DNA Matching Services
There are a number of companies in the market offering DNA Matching services. Most offer online DNA testing and do not require any fees to use the service. However, it is important to ensure that the company offering the DNA Matching service is legally accredited and certified. All DNA testing should be performed by a reputable company using the highest standards of testing. If DNA Matching is conducted by a non-reputable company, the result will be invalid and may not provide accurate data.
2. Finger Geometry Recognition
Out of the other types of Biometrics, Finger Geometry Recognition is very popular and is being used among various kinds of office premises for quite some time. Fingerprint and finger geometry recognition have been developed over the years. Originally, biometric data (biometrics) were the principal source of identification. Fingerprints and finger geometric structures have been extracted from people of various origins and environments. Biometrics also has many applications in crime-fighting and police work. Fingerprint recognition has been used to monitor the presence of firearms in the workplace and has been adapted for use in biometrics systems. It is a convenient tool to track employees, maintain records of people with disabilities, and access control.
First, the performance of biometrics and finger fingerprint recognition improves dramatically by the use of a biometric system based on an iris-like principal component analysis. Second, the accuracy of biometrics is highly improved by joining a Fourier descriptor with principal component analysis. Thirdly, biometrics with high facial features will yield better results than lower facial features when using biometrics. This is because the face is a major source of variance in face recognition accuracy. The entire structure of the face is susceptible to biometrics because the iris contains many tufts and wrinkles that facilitate recognition.
In recent years, new multimodal biometric called IRF1-based multifocal imaging devices has been introduced. These devices incorporate iris features and a multimodal imaging camera in a single compact capturing device. The IRF1 quadrant has been found to yield the highest percentage of success in facial recognition. Multi-frequency phase imaging using multimodal has also yielded good results in facial recognition and other biometrics.
There are several proposed finger geometry feature extraction methodologies. However, it is not clear which method yields the best results in terms of facial recognition accuracy. Some biometrics proposals use geometric features extracted from correlated voice patterns and body shape features such as body axis and head axis angles, while others propose to extract features from head scans or spectra.
While all the proposed techniques have their merits, the accuracy improvement comes only with the right inputs and analysis procedures. For instance, it would be pointless to apply high-frequency imaging to a square face with an axial projection. Yet, this same square face may be an excellent fit position for a low-frequency head scan technique. Thus, it is essential to carefully match the input geometry of the proposed finger geometry feature extraction method to the geometric features of the input data.
A biometric system typically consists of a number of measurements taken from the subject’s hand. Some of these measurements, such as the inter-digital surface acoustic wave (IDSOW), are used to determine a person’s fingerprint patterns. More commonly, biometric systems use hand images captured during operation to determine a person’s identity. The latter method relies on a person’s ability to detect auras around the subject. The former method, however, relies on data obtained from biological mechanisms to determine identity, a necessary step if the system is to be successful at finger recognition.
3. Facial Recognition
Out of the other types of Biometrics, face recognition went viral among the public because of some social media platforms. Face Recognition is a very hot topic nowadays. With the new generation of mobile phones and high-tech digital cameras, there is no way for an individual to go about his or her daily business without having some sort of facial recognition software program for capturing, storing, and comparing photos. It has been discussed and agreed that the best biometric solutions should include image recognition for facial features such as the eyes, nose, mouth, and other human features. However, the most advanced technologies can only identify the features of a person based on a digital database and not on his actual appearance. Therefore, biometrics, the use of facial images to capture biometrics is much more practical in terms of applications.
If we look at the uses of face recognition for biometrics, they can be divided into two – for identifying and verifying (verification) purposes and for identification purposes only. Each of these is a lot more complicated than simply reading a piece of paper to spell out your name. If you walk past a shop window with your bag containing all your groceries, you are still not guaranteed that the person in the shop is the owner because of his/her unreadable (face) print. But with modern biometrics, this is an absolute guarantee because the technology takes into account the uniqueness of every person’s face.
As mentioned above, using this biometric technology for verifying the identities of individuals, especially when the person is entering private and highly confidential information (like financial statements etc) is very important. Because identity theft has reached epidemic proportion, everyone should be extra careful about the things that they put in their hands. There have been many reports about people who have been mugged for simply carrying a plastic card which has their own biometrics pictures on it. Thus, to ensure that your personal identity is safe and secure at all times, you should always carry your own biometric camera.
In addition, face recognition biometrics is also ideal for preventing or deterring against fraud. A criminal would certainly not want to be captured by law enforcement officials due to the fact that they do not want to be identified through this technology. Thus, by having an iris scan, the authorities can positively identify them so that they can be arrested and prosecuted if found guilty. The iris scan is also perfect for preventing identity theft, which may not be committed straight away. If you are the victim of such crime, you can get monetary compensation.
Another reason why this type of identification is becoming more popular is the fact that it does not affect one’s health. In previous years, biometrics were often bulky and not easy to fit into bags, shoes or pockets. Nowadays, biometrics are more compact and can fit into most gears. However, there is always the possibility of losing the data because they can easily be misplaced or damaged. With today’s technology however, this risk is practically non-existent. If you lose your data, all you need to do is to replace it with a new one which can be digitally imprinted on to a new chip that can be attached to a new purse or wallet.
There are still many critics though. Many argue that biometrics are an ineffective way to prevent crime. They argue that a criminal will simply avoid getting caught instead of using a biometric technology because his chances of getting caught are slim to none. Some also argue that the costs of getting caught using biometrics have been exaggerated. As of now, no concrete proof regarding these claims exists and therefore their validity is highly debated.
4. Voice Recognition
Voice – speaker identification is the easy identification of an individual from attributes of other voices. It is also employed to answer the age-old question “whose voice is that?” The term voice recognition may refer to speech recognition or speaker identification. This technology has recently been applied to voice mail, which has revolutionized the way people identify voice mails. Voice recognition software is currently in use in the health care, retail, educational, and law enforcement industries, but is quickly becoming an established voice recognition tool for corporate, institutional, and residential speech recognition requirements.
Voice recognition refers to voice identification or voice recognition. In recent years it has become an integral part of the medical, legal, and retail industries, and is now used in all types of business and communication needs. Voice recognition software can recognize voice patterns (tone, pitch, diction, etc.) and match those patterns to identify and attribute a particular person or attribute a name to a voice, that has been matched using biometrics. Biometrics are pieces of information that identifies a person and are usually unique.
In order for voice recognition to be effective, it must be able to extract and match real-time voice patterns from a variety of sources. Many biometrics sources come in the form of text files (i.e. medical documents), voice files (i.e. recordings of speeches or interviews given by a particular individual), or audio files.
Some biometrics are specific and only useful for one particular application. For example, voice recognition systems that recognize medical voice patterns may not always be helpful when it comes to identifying the gender of the person speaking. Similarly, biometrics used in voice recognition applications may not always be helpful if it is trying to identify a baby’s gender.
Voice recognition has made it very easy to identify speech patterns. You can search for speech patterns (i.e. specific words) and have them matched with a voice file. If you happen to have a long speech that is difficult to transcribe into text, but you happen to be quite sure that you heard that speech in a particular place, there are ways to match the speech recognition engine to that place. You can also have the speech recognition program match your speech to a picture that closely resembles the exact location where you heard the speech (e.g. if you happened to hear the speech in a cafe, you can have the recognition program to locate the image of the coffee cup in that cafe and match the speech to that image).
The biggest limitation of voice recognition programs is when the speech is of low quality. It is often necessary to speak the audio again in order to match it to the source document. However, the improved accuracy of voice recognition makes it worth the effort. The time saved is a small price to pay compared to the time wasted trying to figure out what you actually heard. In many cases, the benefits far outweigh any drawbacks.
5. Iris Recognition
Iris Recognition is one of the biometric systems that has gained a lot of popularity in recent times. Iris biometrics is comprised of iris and fingerprint technology. With the help of biometrics, an individual’s fingerprints are matched with the iris of the person for authentication purposes. Iris biometrics are widely used in many sectors such as banking, security, military, healthcare, and other industries. Iris biometrics or Iris recognition is also being used to track and identify animals.
Biometrics have stood the test of time and are commonly found in common daily life. Fingerprints are widely used to register your child in schools, government offices, hospitals, nursing homes, banks, and more. This iris-based biometric system is convenient and easy to use, which makes it very popular among people. It is easier to match the fingerprints of a person with an iris print of the person. Iris biometrics systems are available in different forms and types and include; iris recognition tattooing, iris recognition cards, iris recognition stickers, and various other biometric solutions.
Iris biometrics are often used like fingerprints. There are several advantages associated with using Iris biometrics and one of them is that it can be used as non-guaranteed biometrics or a fingerprint. Using Iris biometrics as a non-guaranteed biometric system helps to reduce the cost involved, as there are many chances that the system might be wrong in identifying a person.
The biometric systems used in iris recognition are very accurate and provide results within a second. Unlike some of the other biometric solutions which take several days to identify the person, biometrics from Iris provide accurate results within a few seconds. The accuracy of biometrics is what makes them more popular and preferable over other biometric systems.
Iris biometrics systems have been around for quite some time now. Earlier biometric systems like fingerprint scanning and iris recognition were used for identification purposes only. But the technology has progressed and is now widely used for several other reasons as well. One of the major advantages of using Iris biometrics is that they can help you identify someone even if they change their appearance. If a person hides his/her face, the Iris biometrics will be able to locate the person.
There are several different biometric solutions available and they can be used in conjunction with one another for increasing their accuracy. These solutions have their own pros and cons and it is important that you choose the biometrics that best suits your needs. You must first consider where you want to use the iris biometrics and then choose the biometric system that best matches your requirements. Biometrics can also be used for additional security measures like verifying a person’s age. Iris biometrics not only provide easy and quick identification of a person, but they also provide a high level of security and protection to you and your family.
6. Retina Scan
A retinal Scan (or Retinal Transcription) is a biometric method which utilises different optical patterns on the retina of the individual patient. It’s not to be mistaken with biometrics: iris biometrics, more commonly known as iris scans, and hand-eye vein inspection which make use of only the veins in the eyes. However, the methodology that retinoscopy employs is basically the same: rather than using light to illuminate the retina, it applies an image obtained from the actual retina under a highly magnified light in order to create a map of the cornea, allowing for the detection of refractive errors. This method has many advantages over earlier methods – including better visual acuity and reduced risk of serious eye disease – and its main limitation is that it doesn’t work with all people.
It is possible to use iris biometrics and hand eye vein inspection to detect many common eye problems. But it is also possible for people to use other forms of retinal scans, including vascular, cardiac and facial photographs, to locate areas of visual disturbance that are difficult to perceive with standard techniques. For this reason, a wide range of retinal scans are available to practice physicians in the field. All are designed to aid in the detection and treatment of a wide range of visual impairments:
There is a very broad range of retina scan devices that are available today. Some of them are based on the iris pattern of the eye – in effect, using a digital camera to take an iris scan of the retina. Other retina scan devices use optical fibre to transmit light energy into the eye. The type of device that a practitioner uses is entirely determined by their needs.
In addition, there are many advanced retina scanners that use laser technology. The retinas of some patients are difficult to diagnose with the naked eye, which is why retinal scans using lasers have become increasingly popular over the past decade or so. In many cases, the laser can pinpoint the exact location of a blood vessel. This method has even been used to remove a cancerous growth! Some laser-based treatments are based on photo-biopsies of actual human eyes. These are extremely high quality scans, as you can expect, and can usually be used in conjunction with routine biopsies.
A retina scanner is able to identify vessels that are large enough to show on an iris scan. These include the carotid arteries, veins and capillaries. Once these vessels have been found, the physician can then determine whether the vessel is leaking or not. If it is, then the physician can gain access to the vessel and remove it (usually with minor surgery) or starve the vessel so that it stops leaking.
The Retina Scan is actually able to map out unique patterns of blood vessels around the retina. This allows for exacting diagnosis and successful treatment. Because the scan is able to detect certain unique patterns, a physician can often treat the patient much more quickly than if the patient just had a normal X-ray procedure performed. The increased accuracy of the scan means that patients can return to their doctor in a shorter period of time for follow up work.
7. Keystroke Dynamics
One of the most interesting areas of computer science is keystroke dynamics and keystroke biometrics. In this area, the computer receives “signals” or “codes” as they are pressed on a key, much like a fingerprint. These signals allow the computer to know exactly what key was used. With this information, keystroke biometrics enable people to control computers, video recordings, handheld personal digital assistants (PDA’s), and other electronic items using biometrics. Many people use keystroke biometrics and keystroke dynamics for security purposes – these are often used by businesses to protect computers and other electronic items.
Basically, keystroke dynamics or biometrics refer to the technical time data that describes what key was pressed, when it was pressed, and where each key was pressed. This type of information can provide a wealth of security options for any company. If a business has a business card, handbook, website content, or any other digital document, it should be protected using biometrics. It is possible to request that a document be protected using biometrics – meaning that if a user who should not have a known biometric print fills in the “shape” field while trying to input a document into a computer system, then it can be matched against a previously recorded profile, and if matches are found, the document will be Authentication enabled and the person will be denied access. This is a great example of protecting documents in an extremely secure manner.
Another use of keystroke dynamics or biometrics is for authentication in computer systems. For example, a website may require users to enter certain numbers to verify that they are indeed who they say they are. If a user enters the wrong number, their account could be locked or their access could be revoked. With a biometric solution, the user knows that their actions are being recorded and that by mistaking the number they are actually the person they say they are.
A further use of keystroke biometrics is for voice activation. A system which authenticates a user’s voice might use voice recognition technology. A software program would capture a user’s voice and match it against a previously recorded template. If the two match, then the user will know that they are the person that they say they are and no one else will be able to manipulate what is going on with the system. Voice activation systems might also be used for random access control or for simply asking a user to log in using a biometric device, such as a fingerprint reader or smart card reader. This would allow employees to gain access to restricted areas or to gain access to company information for emergency purposes, but it does not compromise their identity.
In addition to providing authentication against email, text and voice data, Keystroke Dynamics can be used as a supplement to typing speed. For example, if you type fast, but your speed is still below standard, then you are sacrificing the accuracy of your typing rhythm, which is another security risk. By using biometrics and other technologies, such as voice recognition, Keystroke Dynamics can take the strain off your fingers by accurately and precisely recording everything you are doing. The software can then run it through a series of tests, which will identify errors in your typing rhythm. These tests can notify you automatically so that you can change your typing rhythm to something more in line with standard typing speed. The tests can also help if you are experiencing other types of errors as well, such as typos.
While Keystroke Dynamics is not considering a replacement for good old-fashioned typing, it does offer a way for employers to make the most out of their workplace computers. It is not a replacement for speech recognition, but it can give you a tremendous amount of assistance in speeding up the process of typing and saving valuable time. Best of all, because the software uses behavioral biometrics to determine typing rhythm, it can eliminate or reduce the risk of typing mistakes that are hard to detect without the software. By taking all of these factors together, you can protect your company’s capital as well as your own personal productivity. You owe it to yourself to find out how keystroke dynamics can increase your productivity!
8. Signature Recognition
Signature recognition is one form of biometric authentication, wherein physical characteristics are extracted from a person’s handwriting. This group is sometimes referred to as “on-site”. Off-site: In this setting, users write their signature on a tablet, which subsequently obtains the signature at a later time through biometrics. In this method, the tablet used is a digital implant device, such as a pen, camera or finger implant, or a biofeedback device. Here, a finger or other physical attribute of the user is scanned by the biometric scanner.
As opposed to fingerprints, iris patterns or hand geometry, which are the most commonly used biometric authentication factors, signature recognition involves digitally capturing a person’s signature on a tablet. For instance, if you have seen an iris pattern on a person’s hand, the pattern could be considered as one of the signature recognition keys. However, this signature only holds relevance if and when the user actually writes down the fingerprint. A key would then be the one with the least number of fingerprints that match.
There are several potential applications of signature recognition, especially when it comes to automation. With the increasing trend of automation, potential applications include controlling multiple devices, monitoring employee productivity, identifying potential employees, monitoring shipping and inventory, and many others. Apart from these potential applications, this modality can further be used for various authentication purposes. One such application is for ATM transactions. Here, the transaction is authorized using biometrics, as users can simply show their fingerprints at a few selected point-of-sale terminal machines.
In addition, signature recognition has also been found to be useful in the financial domain. Here, businesses can use it to automate the process of authorisation and authorization, which further extends to the handling of financial transactions. For instance, by using a dynamic signature verification module, it is possible to perform dynamic, single signatory signing.
This can be used to create data points that represent different entities, such as departments or locations. The advantage of this approach lies in the fact that signature recognition can be applied to document authentication and to image signatures as well. Furthermore, if multiple data points are associated with a signature, then this will allow for more complicated signature recognition assignments.
In a general perspective, offline signature recognition has the following advantages: it is fast, convenient, enables multiple authentication levels (by allowing for multiple data points), and it can reduce the cost of document authentication. For mobile device users, this can be particularly useful as it allows for secure connectivity to the internet on the move. As such, this modality has the potential to bring a significant improvement to the level of security that users experience, both while working offline and while traveling.
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